Lesson 1B – Mechanization & Automation

This lesson focuses on mechanization and automation: core concepts underlying the existence of all industrial control systems.

Learning Objectives
  • Define mechanization and automation, and explain how they are related to each other
  • Describe the high-level architecture for a production system, differentiating between information technology (IT) and operations technology (OT)
  • Explain the levels of automation, and why they are relevant to cybersecurity
  • Explain the degrees of automation, and why they are relevant for cybersecurity
  • Describe the benefits of automating – or not
Lesson 1B – Mechanization & Automation Lesson Plan

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* NICE Cybersecurity Workforce Framework KSAs Addressed
  • K0437: Knowledge of general SCADA system components.
  • K0511: Knowledge of organizational hierarchy and cyber decision making processes.
  • S0038: Skill in identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system
  • S0085: Skill in conducting audits or reviews of technical systems.
  • S0228: Skill in identifying critical target elements, to include critical target elements for the cyber domain.
  • S0278: Skill in tailoring analysis to the necessary levels (e.g., classification and organizational).
  • A0035: Ability to dissect a problem and examine the interrelationships between data that may appear unrelated.

* Most courseware content maps to NIST NICE Cybersecurity Workforce Framework (NCWF) Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSAs) and/or NSA/DHS CAE Knowledge Units (KUs). For more information on KSAs and KUs, please visit:

KSAs: http://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-181.pdf

KUs: https://www.iad.gov/NIETP/documents/Requirements/CAE-CD_2019_Knowledge_Units.pdf