Lesson 1C – Control Systems from Ancient Times to Present

This lesson explains what control systems are, how they work (at a high level), how they have evolved since ancient times, and how “Industry 4.0” emerged.

Learning Objectives
  • List the core functions and components of control systems
  • Describe the difference between feedback control and sequential control
  • Describe the difference between open-loop and closed-loop control
  • Explain how control systems evolved from ancient times to today, emphasizing key enabling innovations and turning points
  • Describe the “Industry 4.0” concept and explain how it emerged
Lesson 1C - Control Systems from Ancient Times to Present Lesson Plan

Log In
to download materials

* NICE Cybersecurity Workforce Framework KSAs Addressed
  • K0309: Knowledge of emerging technologies that have potential for exploitation by adversaries.
  • K0335: Knowledge of current and emerging cyber technologies.
  • K0511: Knowledge of organizational hierarchy and cyber decision making processes.
  • K0612: Knowledge of what constitutes a “threat” to a network.
  • S0085: Skill in conducting audits or reviews of technical systems.
  • S0109: Skill in identifying hidden patterns or relationships.
  • S0278: Skill in tailoring analysis to the necessary levels (e.g., classification and organizational).
  • A0035: Ability to dissect a problem and examine the interrelationships between data that may appear unrelated.
  • A0085: Ability to exercise judgment when policies are not well-defined.
  • A0107: Ability to think like threat actors.
  • A0108: Ability to understand objectives and effects.
* NSA/DHS Center of Excellence (CAE) KUs Addressed
  • Industrial Control Systems

* Most courseware content maps to NIST NICE Cybersecurity Workforce Framework (NCWF) Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSAs) and/or NSA/DHS CAE Knowledge Units (KUs). For more information on KSAs and KUs, please visit:

KSAs: http://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-181.pdf

KUs: https://www.iad.gov/NIETP/documents/Requirements/CAE-CD_2019_Knowledge_Units.pdf