Lesson 1G – Evolution of HMIs to VR/AR and Augmented Human

This lesson describes the history and future of Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs) in the industrial context, including virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), mixed reality (MR), diminished reality (DR), wearables, bio-signal HMIs, and the “Augmented Human.”

Learning Objectives
  • Define Human-Machine Interface (HMI)
  • Describe different types of HMIs, from simple hardware interfaces to embedded HMIs in robots and humans
  • Explain the differences between Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR), Mixed Reality (MR), and Diminished Reality (DR), and what they are (or will be) used for in the industrial environment
  • Describe emerging HMIs, and how they might be used in the industrial environment
  • Explain application whitelisting and why it is important for HMIs
Lesson 1G – Evolution of HMIs to VR/AR and Augmented Human Lesson Plan

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* NICE Cybersecurity Workforce Framework KSAs Addressed
  • K0309: Knowledge of emerging technologies that have potential for exploitation by adversaries.
  • K0314: Knowledge of industry technologies and how differences affect exploitation/vulnerabilities.
  • K0335: Knowledge of current and emerging cyber technologies.
  • K0437: Knowledge of general SCADA system components.
  • K0612: Knowledge of what constitutes a “threat” to a network.
  • S0018: Skill in creating policies that reflect system security objectives.
  • S0027: Skill in determining how a security system should work (including its resilience and dependability capabilities) and how changes in conditions, operations, or the environment will affect these outcomes.
  • S0038: Skill in identifying measures or indicators of system performance and the actions needed to improve or correct performance, relative to the goals of the system
  • S0357: Skill to anticipate new security threats.
  • S0358: Skill to remain aware of evolving technical infrastructures.
  • A0066: Ability to accurately and completely source all data used in intelligence, assessment and/or planning products.
* NSA/DHS Center of Excellence (CAE) KUs Addressed
  • Industrial Control Systems

* Most courseware content maps to NIST NICE Cybersecurity Workforce Framework (NCWF) Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSAs) and/or NSA/DHS CAE Knowledge Units (KUs). For more information on KSAs and KUs, please visit:

KSAs: http://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/SpecialPublications/NIST.SP.800-181.pdf

KUs: https://www.iad.gov/NIETP/documents/Requirements/CAE-CD_Knowledge_Units.pdf